Microscopic Fluctuations in Power-Grid Frequency Recordings at the Subsecond Scale

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Schäfer B., Rydin Gorjão L., YALÇIN G. Ç., Förstner E., Jumar R., Maass H., ...More

Complexity, vol.2023, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 2023
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1155/2023/2657039
  • Journal Name: Complexity
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Applied Science & Technology Source, BIOSIS, Compendex, Computer & Applied Sciences, INSPEC, zbMATH, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Istanbul University Affiliated: Yes


Complex systems, such as the power grid, are essential for our daily lives. Many complex systems display multifractal behavior, correlated fluctuations and power laws. Whether the power-grid frequency, an indicator of the balance of supply and demand in the electricity grid, also displays such complexity remains a mostly open question. Within the present article, we utilize highly resolved measurements to quantify the properties of the power-grid frequency, making three key contributions: First, we demonstrate the existence of power laws in power-grid frequency measurements. Second, we show that below one second, the dynamics may fundamentally change, including a suddenly increasing power spectral density, emergence of multifractality and a change of correlation behavior. Third, we provide a simplified stochastic model involving positively correlated noise to reproduce the observed dynamics, possibly linked to frequency-dependent loads. Finally, we stress the need for high-quality measurements and discuss how we obtained the data analyzed here.