A site effect study of the Adapazari basin, Turkey, from strong- and weak-motion data

ÖZEL O., Sasatani T.

JOURNAL OF SEISMOLOGY, vol.8, no.4, pp.559-572, 2004 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 8 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2004
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s10950-004-3328-8
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.559-572
  • Istanbul University Affiliated: No


Approximately 4000 people were killed due to collapse of buildings in downtown Adapazari during the 1999 Izmit, Turkey earthquake (Mw = 7.4). The downtown is located on a deep sedimentary basin, so-called Adapazari basin. We study site effects of the Adapazari basin based on strong- and weak-motion data obtained by a temporary array observation deployed in and around the Adapazari basin after the earthquake. Four moderate-size aftershocks (M4.6-M5.8) are selected in our study. We evaluate the S-wave amplifications in the basin by using the traditional spectral ratio method. The spectral ratios show that the S waves are considerably amplified in the frequency range of 0.5 to about 5 Hz at the basin sites, but are apparently de-amplified at frequencies higher than about 10 Hz. We make a quantitative interpretation of the empirical amplifications based on the S-wave velocity structures at the stiff-soil reference site as well as at the basin sites; these structures were estimated by the microtremor array measurements. Through the interpretation, we confirm that the amplifications at low frequencies are attributed to the thick sedimentary layers in the Adapazari basin and that the apparent de-amplifications at high frequencies are partly due to the reference site response. In addition to the considerable S-wave amplifications, the basin site records show long-period (about 2 sec) later phases after the S-wave arrival; these later phases are basin-transduced surface waves that are originated from the source and transmitted into the basin. The predominant period of these waves apparently depends on the earthquake magnitude. We conclude that heavy damage in downtown Adapazari during the 1999 Izmit earthquake was caused not only by strongly amplified S-waves but also by long-period basin surface waves of long duration.