Impacts of repeated timber skidding on the chemical properties of topsoil, herbaceous cover and forest floor in an eastern beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) stand


Demir M. , Makineci E. , Çömez A., Yilmaz E.

JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY, vol.31, no.4, pp.477-482, 2010 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 31 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2010
  • Title of Journal : JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY
  • Page Numbers: pp.477-482

Abstract

In this study, long-term timber skidding effects on herbaceous understory, forest floor and soil were investigated on a skid road in a stand of the eastern beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky). For this purpose, herbaceous understory, forest floor and soil samples were collected from the skid road and from an undisturbed area used as a control plot. The mass (kg ha-1) of herbaceous and forest floor samples was determined, and soil characteristics were examined at two depths (0-5 cm and 5-10 cm). We quantified sand, silt and clay content, as well as bulk density, compaction, pH, and organic carbon content in soil samples. The quantities of N, K, P, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu were determined in all herbaceous cover, forest floor and soil samples. The quantities of Na, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn in herbaceous understory samples from the skid road were considerably higher than those in the undisturbed area, while the quantity of Mg was considerably lower. These differences could have been caused by decreased herbaceous cover in addition to variations in the properties of the forest floor and soil after skidding. A lower amount of forest floor on the skid road was the result of skidding and harvesting activities. Mg and Zn contents in forest floor samples were found to be considerably lower for the skid road than for the undisturbed area. No significant differences were found in soil chemical properties (quantities of N, P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn) at the 0-5 cm soil depth. Important differences exist between soil quantities of Mg at a 5-10 cm depth on the skid road and in undisturbed areas. Both 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm soil depths, the average penetrometer resistance values for the skid road was higher than for the undisturbed area. This result shows that the compaction caused by skidding is maintained to depth of 10 cm. Skid road soil showed higher bulk density values than undisturbed areas because of compaction..

In this study, long-term timber skidding effects on herbaceous understory, forest floor and soil were investigated on a skid road in a stand of the eastern beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky). For this purpose, herbaceous understory, forest floor and soil samples were collected from the skid road and from an undisturbed area used as a control plot. The mass (kg ha(-1)) of herbaceous and forest floor samples was determined, and soil characteristics were examined at two depths (0-5 cm and 5-10 cm). We quantified sand, silt and clay content, as well as bulk density, compaction, pH, and organic carbon content in soil samples. The quantities of N, K, P, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu were determined in all herbaceous cover, forest floor and soil samples. The quantities of Na, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn in herbaceous understory samples from the skid road were considerably higher than those in the undisturbed area, while the quantity of Mg was considerably lower These differences could have been caused by decreased herbaceous cover in addition to variations in the properties of the forest floor and soil after skidding. A lower amount of forest floor on the skid road was the result of skidding and harvesting activities. Mg and Zn contents in forest floor samples were found to be considerably lower for the skid road than for the undisturbed area. No significant differences were found in soil chemical properties (quantities of N, P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn) at the 0-5 cm soil depth. Important differences exist between soil quantities of Mg at a 5-10 cm depth on the skid road and in undisturbed areas. Both 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm soil depths, the average penetrometer resistance values for the skid road was higher than for the undisturbed area. This result shows that the compaction caused by skidding is maintained to depth of 10 cm. Skid road soil showed higher bulk density values than undisturbed areas because of compaction.