© 2021 Elsevier Masson SASPurpose: Benign fibro-osseous lesions (BFOLs) are heterogeneous intraosseous disease processes sharing overlapping histopathologic features and demonstrate a wide range of biological behavior. The aim of this study is to highlight the importance of clinical and radiological findings for the definitive histopathologic diagnosis of benign fibro-osseous lesions of the jaws. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional retrospective study evaluating the three main groups of BFOLs: Cemento-osseous dysplasia, ossifying fibromas, and fibrous dysplasia. Previously diagnosed BFOL cases were searched for thoroughly from the archives of Istanbul University, Institute of Oncology, Department of Tumor Pathology in between 2005 and 2015. Clinical and radiological data of these cases were identified and recorded. The histopathologic features were reevaluated from the H&E-stained slides. Results: A total of 276 BFOL cases were identified and reevaluated for the study. The most common BFOL type was cemento-osseous dysplasia (n = 135), followed by cemento-ossifying fibroma (n = 77), fibrous dysplasia (n = 53) and juvenile ossifying fibroma (n = 11). The female/male ratio was 3.4:1 with a strong predilection for the 4th decade (n = 102). The mandible (n = 209) was the predominantly affected jaw. Prominent osteoblastic rimming around the bony lesion was commonly observed for cemento-ossifying fibroma (n = 60/77), followed by cemento-osseous dysplasia (n = 23/135). Predominant ossification patterns showed some differences among the groups. The most common radiological feature was the mixed radiolucent/radiopaque internal structure. Conclusion: Our results document various clinical, radiological and histopathologic findings of BFOLs. Even some histopathologic differences are observed, clinical and radiographic correlation is mandatory prior to the definitive histopathologic diagnosis of BFOLs for the prevention of possible misdiagnoses or inappropriate treatments.