INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EARTH SCIENCES, vol.92, no.3, pp.380-396, 2003 (SCI-Expanded)
In northwest Anatolia, there is a mosaic of different morpho-tectonic fragments within the western part of the right-lateral strike-slip North Anatolian Fault (NAF) Zone. These were developed from compressional and extensional tectonic regimes during the paleo- and neo-tectonic periods of Turkish orogenic history. A NE-SW-trending left-lateral strike-slip fault system (Adapazari-Karasu Fault) extends through the northern part of the Sakarya River Valley and began to develop within a N-S compressional tectonic regime which involved all of northern Anatolia during Middle Eocene to early Middle Miocene times. Since the end of Middle Miocene times, this fault system forms a border between a compressional tectonic regime in the eastern area eastwards from the northern part of the Sakarya River Valley, and an extensional tectonic regime in the Marmara region to the west. The extension caused the development of basins and ridges, and the incursions of the Mediterranean Sea into the site of the future Sea of Marmara since Late Miocene times. Following the initiation in late Middle Miocene times and the eastward propagation of extension along the western part of the NAF, a block (North Anatolian Block) began to form in the northern Anatolia region since the end of Pliocene times. The Adapazari-Karasu Fault constitutes the western boundary of this block which is bounded by the NAF in the south, the Northeast Anatolian Fault in the east, and the South Black Sea Thrust Fault in the north. The northeastward movement of the North Anatolian Block caused the formation of a marine connection between the Black Sea and the Aegean/Mediterranean Sea during the Pleistocene.