Purpose: There are conflicting reports on the effects of diabetes on the outcomes of hemodialysis access procedures. While some found no negative effects, others reported deleterious effects of diabetes on vascular access outcomes. Why is there concern about diabetes and related vascular problems on vascular access procedures? What are the differences of diabetic patients and their vasculature from that of nondiabetics? Do they have an effect on hemodialysis vascular access outcomes? We will try to find answers to these questions in light of the available evidence.