Children in paediatric intensive care units (PICUs) are vulnerable to infections because invasive devices are frequently used during their admission. We aimed to determine the prevalence, associated factors, and prognosis of infections in our PICU. This retrospective study evaluated culture results from 477 paediatric patients who were treated in the PICU between January 2014 and March 2019. Ninety patients (18.9%) had bacterial infections, with gram-negative bacteria being the predominant infectious agents. Culture-positive patients were younger than culture-negative patients, and age was related to mortality and various clinical factors. Culture-positive bacterial infections in the PICU were associated with increased use of invasive mechanical ventilation (odds ratio(OR); 2.254), red blood cell (RBC) transfusions (OR:2.624), and inotropic drugs (OR:2.262). Carbapenem resistance was found in approximately one-third of gram-negative bacteria, and was most common in tracheal aspirate specimens and cases involving Klebsiella spp. Total parenteral nutrition was a significant risk factor (OR:5.870). Positive blood culture results were associated with poorer patient survival than other culture results. These findings indicate that infections, especially those involving carbapenem-resistant bacteria, are an important issue when treating critically ill children.