BMC NEUROLOGY, vol.22, no.1, 2022 (SCI-Expanded)
Background Biallelic pathogenic variants in the SCARB2 gene have been associated with action myoclonus-renal failure (AMRF) syndrome. Even though SCARB2 associated phenotype has been reported to include typical neurological characteristics, depending on the localization and the feature of the pathogenic variants, clinical course and the presentations have been shown to differ. Case presentation Whole exome sequencing (WES) analysis revealed a homozygous truncating variant (p.N45MfsX88) in SCARB2 gene in the index case, and subsequent sanger sequencing analysis validated the variant in all affected family members from a Turkish family with the clinical characteristics associated with AMRF and related disorders. Intrafamilial clinical heterogeneity with common features including dysarthria, tremor and proteinuria, and distinct features such as peripheral neuropathy (PNP), myoclonus and seizures between the affected cases, was observed in the family. In-depth literature review enabled the detailed investigation of the reported variants associated with AMRF and suggested that while the type of the variant did not have a major impact on the course of the clinical characteristics, only the C terminal localization of the pathogenic variant significantly affected the clinical presentation, particularly the age at onset (AO) of the disease. Conclusions In this study we showed that biallelic SCARB2 pathogenic variants might cause a spectrum of common and distinct features associated with AMRF. Of those features while the common features include myoclonus (100%), ataxia (96%), tonic clonic seizures (82%), dysarthria (68%), tremor (65%), and renal impairment (62%), the uncommon features involve PNP (17%), hearing loss (6.8%), and cognitive impairment (13.7%). AO has been found to be significantly higher in the carriers of the p.G462DfsX34 pathogenic variant. SCARB2 pathogenic variants have not been only implicated in AMRF but also in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and Gaucher disease (GD), suggesting the importance of genetic and functional studies in the clinical and the diagnostic settings. Given the proven role of SCARB2 gene in the pathogenesis of AMRF, PD and GD with a wide spectrum of clinical symptoms, investigation of the possible modifiers, such as progranulin and HSP7, has a great importance.