THE LAST PENETRATION OF THE CRUSADER ARMIES INTO THE SELJUK TERRITORY OF ANATOLIA: EMPEROR FRIEDRICH BARBAROSSA'S CRUSADE (1089-1190)


Altan E.

TURKISH JOURNAL OF HISTORY-TARIH DERGISI, no.68, pp.15-30, 2018 (Journal Indexed in ESCI) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: Issue: 68
  • Publication Date: 2018
  • Doi Number: 10.26650/turkjhist.2018.18004
  • Title of Journal : TURKISH JOURNAL OF HISTORY-TARIH DERGISI
  • Page Numbers: pp.15-30

Abstract

In the 12th century, Anatolia witnessed the great struggles between the Crusaders and the Turks, and the Crusaders penetrated into the Seljuk territory for the last time during the Third Crusade (1189-1192). By conquering Jerusalem in 1187, the Egyptian-Syrian ruler, Salah al-Din, put an end to the Crusaders' domination in Jerusalem, which lasted 88 years, at which point German Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa assumed the cross as well. Emperor Friedrich's army entered into Byzantine territory over Hungary in 1189, and by crossing through the Dar-danelles (Canakkale) into Anatolia, they moved southward through Balikesir-Ala Shehir and headed toward Seljuk territory after the Byzantine border town Denizli (Laodiceia). Having proceeded under attacks from the Seljukian army upon the Byzantine/Selju. borderlands, the German Crusaders set Akshehir on fire and marched toward Iconium. After a fierce battle, Emperor Friedrich finally managed to enter into Iconium by force on May 18th, but after lea-ving Iconium, Friedrich drowned while crossing the Saleph River (Silifke / Salukiya), upon which the German army disbanded (June 10, 1190). This paper deals with Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa's army marching through Anatolia and the concurrent Seljukian-Crusader struggle.