Introduction Previous studies reported the efficacy and safety profile of extended half-life PEGylated recombinant factor VIII (FVIII) rurioctocog alfa pegol (TAK-660, SHP660, BAX 855) in preventing bleeding in haemophilia A patients. Aim This study evaluated long-term safety and efficacy of rurioctocog alfa pegol for prophylaxis and treatment of bleeding in previously treated children and adults. Methods In this phase 3b, prospective, open-label, multicentre study (NCT01945593), eligible patients <= 75 years with severe haemophilia A (FVIII < 1%) received prophylactic rurioctocog alfa pegol in a fixed dose (FD, twice-weekly or less frequent) or pharmacokinetic (PK)-tailored dose regimen. Co-primary endpoints were incidence of confirmed FVIII inhibitory antibody development and spontaneous annualized bleed rate (ABR), analysed using a generalised linear model. Secondary endpoints included overall haemostatic efficacy, occurrence of adverse events and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Results Overall, 216 patients were included; mean (SD) age at enrolment was 22.8 (15.7) years. No patients developed confirmed FVIII inhibitors. The point estimate (95% CI) of mean spontaneous ABR was 1.20 (0.92-1.56) among 186 patients receiving twice-weekly FD prophylaxis and 0.96 (0.54-1.71) among 25 patients receiving PK-tailored prophylaxis. Overall haemostatic efficacy was rated good or excellent in 88.6% of all bleeds. No new safety signals were observed. Patients reported improvements in HRQoL measures of pain, and physical and mental well-being. Conclusion These results highlight the long-term safety and efficacy of rurioctocog alfa pegol prophylaxis in previously treated children and adults with severe haemophilia A, with a safety profile similar to previous studies and continuing ABR reduction.