To evaluate the clinical and neuroimaging features of pediatric acquired demyelinating syndromes (ADS) in a tertiary pediatric neurology clinic in Turkey. All children diagnosed with any subset of ADS between 2013 and 2018 were included in this retrospective cohort study. Forty-two patients (21 female) with a median follow-up period of 30 months were included. The median age of the patients at disease onset was 11 years (range 1.5-17 years). The most common pediatric ADS categories according to the International pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group consensus classification criteria were acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and multiple sclerosis (MS), each of which seen in 15 patients, followed by clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) (n = 11) and Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder (NMOSD) (n = 1). At the first clinical event, children with ADEM significantly differed from the children affected by MS and CIS in terms of the following parameters: median age at onset (7 vs. 13.5 and 14.5 years; p < 0.001), encephalopathy (93.3 vs 0% and 0%; p < 0.001), and basal ganglia/thalamus lesions (73.3 vs 9.1% and 9.1%; p < 0.001). The frequency of seizure and pleocytosis were higher in ADEM group than MS group (p < 0.05), whereas oligoclonal bands (p < 0.001) and periventricular white matter lesions (p < 0.01) were more frequently observed in MS patients. Rituximab was used with great success in the prevention of relapses in 3 patients: NMOSD (n = 1), MS (n = 1) and ADEM followed by recurrent optic neuritis (n = 1). Our results define the longitudinal disease course of various ADS categories in a single referral center. In addition, this study compares various clinical, laboratory and neuroimaging features between these ADS categories.