Recent research focused on prolonged survival has suggested that carboxypeptidase A4 (CPA4) plays a role in both tumor microenvironment formation and distant metastasis in cancer. In some patients, serum and expression (mRNA) levels of CPA4 have been found to be correlated with the aggressiveness and progression of the disease. Accordingly, we conducted a first study to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic significance of CPA4 in the case of breast cancer (BC), the most common form of malignancy in women. The study included a total of 50 patients with BC and 20 healthy women as the control group. The participants' serum CPA4 levels were determined by the ELISA test, and, for assessment of CPA4 mRNA, we used the PCR method. The serum CPA4 (p = 0.001) and CPA4 mRNA (p = 0.015) levels were found to be statistically significantly higher in the controls, compared to the patient group. When the results of patient group were statistically analyzed based on subgrouping by tumor characteristics, the measured CPA4 mRNA levels showed significant difference with respect to the molecular subtype (p = 0.006), pN status (p = 0.023), and pathological stage (p = 0.039), while the serum CPA4 measurements differed significantly in terms of pathological type only (p = 0.024). We conclude that CPA4 is diagnostically and prognostically not futile when used in combination with the other considerations and measurements in breast cancer.