Aims: Migraine is a common and debilitating episodic disorder characterized by recurrent headache attacks associated with autonomic symptoms. It affects an estimated 12% of the population. The etiology of the underlying neurodegenerative process is widely unknown; however, oxidative stress is a unifying factor in the current theories of migraine pathogenesis. After demonstrating the observation that oxidative DNA damage is detectable in migraine disease, searching the role played by DNA repair systems in migraine diseases could bring us much significant information about the pathogenesis of migraine. We prospectively investigated whether DNA repair gene polymorphisms (XRCC1 Arg399Gln, XRCC3 Thr241Met XPD Lys751Gln, XPG Asp1104His, APE1 Asp148Glu, hOGG1 Ser326Cys) account for an increased risk of migraine. The present analyses are based on 135 case subjects with migraine disease and 101 noncase subjects. Genotyping of DNA repair gene polymorphisms (XRCC1 Arg399Gln, XRCC3 Thr241Met XPD Lys751Gln, XPG Asp1104His, APE1 Asp148Glu, hOGG1 Ser326Cys) was detected by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results: We demonstrated that apurinic endonuclease (APE), X-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 3 (XRCC3), xeroderma pigmentosum D (XPD), and hOGG1 gene variants were associated with an increased risk for development of migraine disease (p < 0.05). In contrast, no statistically significant differences were found in genotype distributions of X-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 1 (XRCC1) and XPG between migraine cases and controls (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Our findings have suggested that APE1, XRCC3, XPD, and hOGG1 gene variants could facilitate the development of migraine disease.