Modern-day Turkey covers a vast area and includes many different ecological regions. Based on its geographic position, the Asian portion of Turkey, Anatolia, is accepted as a major route of early hominin dispersals. While it represents a reasonably direct route, Anatolia should not be conceptualized as a convenient land bridge for hominins originating in Africa, one that could be traversed without anatomical and/or technological adaptations. The available data show, at minimum, the presence of hominins in Anatolia at various times in the Pleistocene and the presence of various lithic traditions in the region. These are not sufficient for clarifying Anatolia's role as a passage in the earliest occupations of Eastern Europe, and theories suggesting Anatolia as a major hominin dispersal route must remain preliminary.