Prevalence of <i>Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae</i>, and <i>Mycoplasma genitalium</i> among Patients with Urogenital Symptoms in Istanbul

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Uysal H., Koksal M. O., Sarsar K., Ilktac M., Isik Z., Karapinar D. B., ...More

HEALTHCARE, vol.11, no.7, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 11 Issue: 7
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/healthcare11070930
  • Journal Name: HEALTHCARE
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, CINAHL, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: chlamydia trachomatis, mycoplasma genitalium, neisseria gonorrhoeae, sexually transmitted diseases, urogenital infections
  • Istanbul University Affiliated: Yes


Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Mycoplasma genitalium are the three most commonly reported sexually transmitted bacteria. The present study aimed to investigate the presence of C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, and M. genitalium in urogenital samples collected from 18-68-year-old Turkish patients who were admitted to the hospital with various urogenital symptoms. A total of 360 patients with symptoms of STD were included in the study. Following DNA extraction by QIAamp Mini Kit, the presence of C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, and M. genitalium were investigated using multiplex real-time PCR. Causative organisms were identified in 68 (18.9%) of 360 patients. C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, and M. genitalium were detected in 40 (11.1%), 14 (3.9%), and 28 (7.8%) of the patients, respectively. Patients 21-30 years of age represented more than one-third (37.8%) of positive patients. Of all patients, dual infections of C. trachomatis-M. genitalium, N. gonorrhoeae-C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae-M. genitalium, and triple infection of C. trachomatis-N. gonorrhoeae-M. genitalium were determined in 1.6% (6/360), 1.3% (5/360), 0.2% (1/360), and 0.2% (1/360) of the patients, respectively. In CT-, NG-, and MG-positive patients, different STI agents were also found such as HIV, HBV, HPV, HSV2, T. pallidum, and T. vaginalis. In conclusion, among C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, and M. genitalium, CT was the most frequently detected bacterial cause of STDs in our hospital at Istanbul. Co-infections, which comprise more than one-fifth of the cases, should not be underestimated. Regular screening and following up of STD agents using multiplex real-time PCR-based diagnostic methods enabling the immediate detection of co-infections are essential for the treatment and primary prevention of STDs.