Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is currently an important cause of morbidity and mortality in hematopoietic stem cell transplant and solid organ transplant recipients. A high index of suspicion and careful clinical and radiological examinations are the keys to identifying infected patients early. Chest computerized axial tomography is extremely useful in diagnosing pulmonary aspergillosis. Microbiologic or histologic identification of infection, however, remain essential. Successful management of invasive fungal infections depends on timely and appropriate treatment. There are multiple variables associated with survival in transplant patients with IA. Understanding these prognostic factors may assist in the development of treatment algorithms and clinical trials. In contrast to adult patients, large prospective comparitive studies have not been performed in pediatric patients with IA. Moreover, pediatric subgroups have not been analyzed in published studies that include a broader age range. Clinicians treating pediatric IA are largely left with the results of uncontrolled trials, observatory surveys, salvage therapy data and extrapolations from adult studies to guide their treatment choices. The aim of this article is to state the main characteristics of IA in both pediatric and adult populations.