Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) may be familial or secondary to infections, malignancies, metabolic disorders. Infectious causes are mostly viral and EBV is the mostly frequently seen etiologic agent. In this case, we report a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), who had three episodes of secondary HLH, possibly due to two different viral etiologies, namely CMV and RSV together with her malignancy, during her induction-consolidation treatment. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2009;53: 491-492. (C) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.