Plasma neurotrophin levels are elevated in patients with allergic and autoimmune diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the serum neurotrophin levels in 42 patients displaying chronic spontaneous urticaria, as well as 22 healthy control subjects. Blood samples were obtained from subjects during their first visit to the clinic, and then again after one month of desloratadine therapy. No significant difference was found between patient and control groups in terms of basal serum neurotrophin levels. However, basal nerve growth factor levels in patients whose symptoms persisted despite treatment were significantly lower than those of the drug-responsive patients and the control group. In treatment-responsive patients, nerve growth factor increased after suppression of the symptoms. Our study suggests that chronic spontaneous urticaria is linked with changes serum nerve growth factor levels, and that the deregulation of neurotrophins may contribute to urticaria pathophysiology.