The majority of small cell carcinoma (SCC) cases originate from the lungs. SCC of the kidneys is rare. Among genitourinary tumors, renal cell carcinoma is the most common type of tumor to be associated with paraneoplastic syndromes. The majority of paraneoplastic syndromes disappear following nephrectomy in renal cell carcinoma cases. The present case involved the assessment of a female patient with SCC of the left kidney. The patient was diagnosed with acute renal failure and underwent a laparoscopic left radical nephrectomy. Surgical intervention removed the need for dialysis; the patient was under follow-up observation every week without any requirement for dialysis for 8 months and received adjuvant carboplatin-etoposide chemotherapy. Surgery is an option for dialysis-dependent patients with a renal tumor. The removal of the tumor burden may restore renal function and eliminate paraneoplastic syndromes.