The aim of this study was to assess the relation between the use of cocaine during pregnancy and development of necrotizing enterocolitis in a rat model. Different doses of cocaine HCl were given to pregnant Wistar Albino rats during gestation. Total number of live births, mean birth weight, mean placental weight and histopathological examination of the maternal uterus, placenta, embryonal G-I tract and liver were investigated. These results were compared with a control group and showed that the number of live births, mean birth weight and mean placental weight were lower than in non-cocaine controls. Histopathologic examinations revealed severe inflammation and vascular changes in the uterus and placenta. We also observed focal necrosis, necrobiosis, cellular debris, haemorrhage, inflammatory reactions in the G-I tract of embryos. These findings indicate that maternal cocaine abuse should probably be considered a major risk factor for development of NEC in baby rats and embryos.