In this report, the results of renal transplantation in patients with renal amyloidosis were retrospectively analysed and compared with the control group. Fifteen (3.04%) of the 493 renal transplant recipients whom were followed up in Istanbul School of Medicine transplant outpatient clinic. between 1983 and 1997, were included in the study. The etiology of amyloidosis was familial Mediterranean fever in all patients. The mean follow-up period was 38.3 +/- 31.8 (range 7-65) months. Twelve of the patients were male and 3 female with the mean age 34.13 +/- 10.87 (range 21-60) years. Seven patients had living related, 3 living-unrelated and 4 cadaveric donors. Five patients were lost because of different complications: Three patients died from cardiac amyloidosis all with well functioning grafts, 2, 3 and 36 months after the operation. sepsis and cardiovascular failure was the probable cause of death in 1 patient who also had chronic rejection. Another one patient with chronic rejection died from hepatic failure, acute rejection developed in 2 patients, Renal functions of these patients improved by anti-rejection therapies. Chronic rejection developed in 3 patients. In the control group. acute rejection and chronic rejection were diagnosed in 5 and 1 patients, retrospectively. While 1 patients returned to hemodialysis in control group, the others are alive with satisfactory graft function. There was no death in control group. The 5-yr graft and patient survival rates in amyloidosis and the control groups were 75, 77, 95 and 100%, respectively. It was concluded that although transplantation is not a contraindication for the treatment of end stage renal failure in patients with renal amyloidosis, it carries high risk of cardiac complications in the postoperative period. Detailed preoperative cardiovascular evaluations are mandatory in these patients and this intervention should improve the prognosis by excluding the patients who have already been complicated with this problem.