Design of voltage-mode PID controller using a single voltage differencing current conveyor (VDCC)


ANALOG INTEGRATED CIRCUITS AND SIGNAL PROCESSING, vol.109, no.1, pp.11-27, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 109 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s10470-021-01880-5
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Aerospace Database, Applied Science & Technology Source, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, Computer & Applied Sciences, INSPEC, Metadex, DIALNET, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.11-27
  • Keywords: PID controller, Voltage differencing current conveyor, Voltage-mode
  • Istanbul University Affiliated: No


This paper presents a voltage differencing current conveyor (VDCC) based voltage-mode (VM) proportional integral derivative (PID) controller for the first time. The proposed VM PID controller consists of a single VDCC, four resistors, and two grounded capacitors. The proposed circuit employs a minimum number of passive components and does not require any passive element matching condition. The proposed circuit can realize both non-inverting and inverting VM PID controller transfer functions simultaneously. The control parameters can be adjusted electronically. The sensitivity of the control parameters has been examined for ideal and non-ideal conditions. Besides, the effects of parasitic impedances on the operating frequency limits have been investigated in non-ideal conditions. Simulation results have been performed with the LTspice program using TSMC 0.18 mu m CMOS technology parameters. The total power dissipation of the proposed PID controller is 1.06 mW. Monte Carlo and temperature analyses have been carried out to validate the robustness of the proposed circuit. A closed-loop control system application is given to demonstrate the functionality of the proposed controller. Additionally, a comparison of the proposed VM PID controller with the relevant circuits previously published in the literature is presented.