Should warm fresh whole blood be the first choice in acute massive hemorrhage in emergency conditions?

Kendigelen P. , KAMALAK Z., ABAT D.

ULUSAL TRAVMA VE ACIL CERRAHI DERGISI-TURKISH JOURNAL OF TRAUMA & EMERGENCY SURGERY, cilt.22, sa.2, ss.195-198, 2016 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier identifier

  • Yayın Türü: Makale / Tam Makale
  • Cilt numarası: 22 Konu: 2
  • Basım Tarihi: 2016
  • Doi Numarası: 10.5505/tjtes.2015.40697
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.195-198


Early management of rapid massive hemorrhage requires early administration of blood products and rapid surgical control of bleeding. Professionals in peripheral hospitals with limited resources often work under conditions similar to those in the military. Described in the present report are 3 cases in which warm fresh whole blood (WFWB) was used in patients with massive bleeding who presented to a peripheral hospital that had no blood products suitable for emergency conditions. Described first is the case of a 16-year-old female patient who underwent emergency cesarean section. The patient had massive bleeding from the uterus due to atony. Her hemoglobin (Hb) dropped to 3.5 g/dL. Six units of WFWB were transfused during surgery. Hemodynamic parameters and complete blood count (CBC) stabilized. She was transferred from the intensive care unit (ICU) to obstetrics on day 2 and was discharged on day 7. Described second is the case of a 35-year-old female patient who also underwent emergency cesarean section, and for whom massive bleeding was due to uterine atony. Hb dropped to 2 g/dL and hematocrit (HCT) to 5.4%. Nine units of WFWB were transfused, after which hemodynamic and laboratory parameters stabilized. The patient was extubated the following day, transferred from the ICU to obstetrics on day 3, and was discharged on day 8. Described third is the case of a 36-year-old male patient with stab injuries and hemorrhagic shock who underwent emergency surgery. The patient had injuries to the right renal artery and kidney. Nine units of WFWB were transfused due to continued hemorrhage during surgery. Following surgical control of bleeding and transfusion, hemodynamic parameters improved. The patient was transferred from the ICU on day 5 and discharged on day 10. WFWB transfusion nearly disappeared from civilian medicine after blood was separated into components, and whole blood is not usually available at blood banks. In massive transfusions, WFWB effectively replaces red blood cells (RBCs), platelets, plasma volume, and coagulation factors, while preventing hypothermia and dilutional coagulopathy. Blood components go through biochemical, biomechanical, and immunological changes during long storage, the duration of which affects both transfusion efficacy and associated risks. In the future, with the use of fast donor tests, fast ABO compatibility tests, platelet-sparing leukocyte filters, and developments in pathogen-decreasing technology, fresh whole blood (FWB) may be the first choice for massive transfusion. Future studies will reveal new procedures.