Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of intraarticular insulin on the treatment of chondral defects. Design Twenty-four mature New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups as control (Group 1), microfracture (Group 2), and microfracture and insulin (Group 3). Four-millimeter full-thickness cartilage defects were created to the weight-bearing surface on the medial femoral condyles of each rabbit. In the first group, any additional interventions were not performed. Microfracture was performed on defects in groups 2 and 3. Additionally, 10 IU of insulin glargine was administrated into the knee joints of the third group. Three months after surgery, the knee joints were harvested and cartilage quality was assessed according to Wakitani and ICRS (International Cartilage Repair Society) scores histopathologically. Insulin injections were performed into the knees of 2 additional rabbits without creating a cartilage defect to evaluate the potential adverse effects of insulin on healthy cartilage (Group 4). Results The total ICRS and Wakitani scores of the insulin group were found to be significantly lower than the microfracture group but similar to the control group. No negative effects of insulin on healthy cartilage were detected. Intraarticular insulin after surgery has led to a statistically significant decrease in systemic blood sugar levels whereas the decrease observed after administration to intact tissues was not statistically significant. Conclusions Insulin had a negative influence on the quality of cartilage regeneration and had no effect on healthy cartilage. Intraarticular insulin administration does not cause significant systemic effects in intact tissue.