Genetic diversity at the Dhn3 locus in Turkish Hordeum spontaneum populations with comparative structural analyses

Ucarli C. , Mcguffin L. J. , Caputlu S., Aravena A. , Guerl F.

SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, vol.6, 2016 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 6
  • Publication Date: 2016
  • Doi Number: 10.1038/srep20966
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus


We analysed Hordeum spontaneum accessions from 21 different locations to understand the genetic diversity of HsDhn3 alleles and effects of single base mutations on the intrinsically disordered structure of the resulting polypeptide (HsDHN3). HsDHN3 was found to be YSK2-type with a low-frequency 6-aa deletion in the beginning of Exon 1. There is relatively high diversity in the intron region of HsDhn3 compared to the two exon regions. We have found subtle differences in K segments led to changes in amino acids chemical properties. Predictions for protein interaction profiles suggest the presence of a protein-binding site in HsDHN3 that coincides with the K-1 segment. Comparison of DHN3 to closely related cereals showed that all of them contain a nuclear localization signal sequence flanking to the K-1 segment and a novel conserved region located between the S and K-1 segments [E(D/T) DGMGGR]. We found that H. vulgare, H. spontaneum, and Triticum urartu DHN3s have a greater number of phosphorylation sites for protein kinase C than other cereal species, which may be related to stress adaptation. Our results show that the nature and extent of mutations in the conserved segments of K-1 and K-2 are likely to be key factors in protection of cells.