Sixty episodes of candidemia among hospitalized patients in the United Arab Emirates (0.77/1000 discharges) in 1995-2001 were identified through case retrieval. All patients had malignancy (65%) or serious non-malignant disease (35%). Candida albicans accounted for 45% of isolates. Non-C albicans Candida species occurred more frequently than C albicans in adults (67%), hematologic-malignancy patients (58%), and cases of breakthrough candidemia (83%) and were prevalent overall in 2000-2001 (67-73%). C tropicalis was identified in 15% of cases, C glabrata in 5%, C parapsilosis in 5%, C inconspicua in 2%, C famata in 2% and C lusitaniae in 1%. Delayed diagnosis or treatment was common, as was Karnofsky scale less than or equal to40%, septic shock, and inadequate dosage or duration of antifungal drug therapy. Crude mortality was 50%, and mortality attributable to candidemia was 30%. Univariate analysis indicated patients were more likely to die (odds ratio for death [95% CI]) if they had been stationed in the intensive care unit (ICU) (4.76 [1.31-17.2]), had a Karnofsky scale less than or equal to40% (38.76 [4.66-322.47]), or suffered septic shock (9.88 [2.9-33.65]). They were more likely to survive in cases with concomitant bacteremia (0.25 [0.07-0.91]), adequate antifungal dose (0.28 [0.08-0.94]), and removal of central lines (0.26 [0.07-0.95]). The high association of bacteremia with candidemia (70% of cases) is unusual. The apparent survival benefit experienced by patients who had bacteremia (odds ratio for survival on multivariate analysis = 2.40 [0.28-20.17], P < 0.03) is novel.