A prospective, hospital-based cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis study was undertaken in 65 children who had diagnostic lumbar puncture on admission for suspected central nervous system infections. Twenty-three children were clinically diagnosed to have had sepsis and/or meningitis. CSF bacterial culture grew Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) in four cases and Streptococcus pneumonia (SP) was cultured in another child. Bacterial antigen was detected in 13 other CSF specimens and the pathogens were Hib (n = 9), SP (n = 3) and Group B Streptococcus (n = 1). No etiologic cause was identified to explain the abnormal CSP pleocytosis and biochemistry in the remaining five cases. In contrast, the CSF analysis was normal in 42 other children with probable viral and non-infectious neurological condition, mostly febrile convulsions. The overall frequency rate for all types of meningitis and especially for Hib meningitis were 43 and 31 cases per 100 000 children < 5 years of age, respectively. These findings support our earlier observations that Hib meningitis still remains the leading cause of childhood meningitis in our region. Also it reaffirms the observation that bacterial meningitis may often be under-reported if CSF positive culture alone is considered for the diagnosis.