The Prefabricated Temporal Island Flap for Eyelid and Eye Socket Reconstruction in Total Orbital Exenteration Patients A New Method

Altindas M., Yucel A., Ozturk G., Sarac M., Kılıç A.

ANNALS OF PLASTIC SURGERY, vol.65, no.2, pp.177-182, 2010 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 65 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2010
  • Doi Number: 10.1097/sap.0b013e3181c9dd17
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.177-182
  • Istanbul University Affiliated: Yes


Anophtalmic socket reconstruction is a challenging problem in plastic surgery. We had described a prefabricated superficial temporal fascia island flap and used this technique in >50 enucleation patients with severe socket contraction ending in excellent or good results for 28 years (Altindas-1 procedure). However, the flap was not suitable for the exenteration patients with complete eyelid loss. The technique was modified and used in exenteration patients (Altindas-2 procedure). In this 2-staged procedure, the temporoparietal fascia is prefabricated with a full-thickness skin graft from the retroauricular area, and a strip of scalp is preserved at the middle of the flap. The flap is transferred to the orbit through a subcutaneous tunnel at the second stage. The prefabricated flap is used for the reconstruction of eyelids and periorbital skin; scalp island is used for the reconstruction of lid margins and eyelashes; and the neighboring bare temporoparietal fascia is used for the augmentation of the periorbital soft tissues. The orbital lining is elevated as a centrally based skin flap and used for the reconstruction of the eye socket, fornicles, and posterior lining of the eyelids. The technique was used successfully in 5 total exenteration patients with complete eyelid loss. In 1 patient, the ipsilateral temporal island flap was used previously, and the flap was prepared from the contralateral site and transferred to the anophtalmic orbit as a free flap 5 weeks later. By this procedure, it is possible to reconstruct a stable eye socket that is suitable for ocular prosthesis, upper and lower fornicles, periorbital skin with good color matching, naturally looking eyelids with eyelashes and lid margins, and medial and lateral canthal areas. It is also possible to improve periorbital soft tissue atrophy, which is an important problem in patients who had radiotherapy previously. Free transfer of the flap provides a new solution for the reconstruction of cases that were operated previously.