The aim of this study was to prepare ondansetron-loaded biodegradable microspheres as a nasal delivery system. Microspheres were prepared with emulsification/spray-drying technique using poly(d,l-lactide) (PLA) and two different types of poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA). The effect of the type of organic solvent (dichloromethane (DCM) or a mixture of DCM and ethyl acetate) on the microsphere characteristics was also examined. The prepared microspheres were evaluated with respect to the morphological properties, particle size, zeta potential, drug loading efficiency, and in vitro drug release. The mean particle size (d(50)) of microsphere formulations was ranged from 11.67-25.54 mu m, indicating suitable particle size for nasal administration. All microspheres had low drug loading efficiency in the range of 12.28-21.04%. The results indicated that particle size of microspheres were affected by both type of polymer and organic solvent, however drug loading efficiency of microspheres were affected by only the type of organic solvent used. All microspheres were negatively charged due to the polymers (PLA or PLGA) used. A prolonged in vitro drug release profile was observed for 96 h. Based on in vitro data, the selected microsphere formulation has been applied via nasal route to rats in vivo. Following nasal administration of ondansetron-loaded microsphere to rats, ondansetron plasma levels were within a range of 30-48 ng/mL during 96 h, indicating a sustained drug delivery pattern and relatively a constant plasma drug concentration level. The results suggested that biodegradable microspheres prepared with emulsification/spray-drying technique could be considered to deliver ondansetron via nasal route to obtain a prolonged release.