Increasing evidence suggests that the postprandial state is a contributing factor to the development of atherosclerosis. To evaluate the effects of acute hyperglycemia on the oxidative stress, concentrations of serum-oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL), paraoxonase 1 (PON1), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (n = 35), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) (n = 25), and diabetic glucose tolerance (DGT) (n = 20). In NGT group, the 2 hours' TBARS and oxLDL levels were not statistically different when compared to baseline, and 2 hours' PON1 activities were higher when compared to baseline (p<0.01). Subjects with IGT and DGT have higher 2 hours' serum TBARS and oxLDL levels than their baseline levels (p<0.01, for each). Baseline oxLDL levels of both IGT and DGT groups were higher than NGT group (p<0.01 and p<0.01, respectively). While there were not any significant differences in 2 hours' versus baseline PON1 activities in the IGT group, the 2 hours' versus baseline PON1 activities in the DGT group were significantly lower (p<0.01). The postchallenge 2 hours' PON1 activities of both IGT and DGT groups were lower than NGT group (p<0.01 and p<0.01, respectively). Baseline oxLDL was positively correlated with 2 hours' glucose (r = 0.613, p<0.01) in IGT and DGT groups. PON1 activities were correlated with HDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and fasting glucose (r = 0.680, r = 0.698 and r = 0.431, respectively, for each p<0.01) in NGT. In conclusion, oxidative stress occurs at an early stage in diabetes, and protective effects of HDL against atherosclerosis may be dependent on the PON1 activities.