Switch to oral antibiotics in Gram-negative bacteraemia: a randomized, open-label, clinical trial

Omrani A. S., Abujarir S. H., Ben Abid F., Shaar S. H., YILMAZ M., Shaukat A., ...More

Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol.30, no.4, pp.492-498, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 30 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.cmi.2023.10.014
  • Journal Name: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, Environment Index, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, MEDLINE, Public Affairs Index, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.492-498
  • Keywords: Bacteraemia, Enterobacterales, Gram negative, Oral therapy, Step down, Switch
  • Istanbul University Affiliated: Yes


Objectives: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of switching from intravenous (IV) to oral antimicrobial therapy in patients with Enterobacterales bacteraemia, after completion of 3–5 days of microbiologically active IV therapy. Methods: A multicentre, open-label, randomized trial of adults with monomicrobial Enterobacterales bacteraemia caused by a strain susceptible to ≥1 oral beta-lactam, quinolone, or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Inclusion criteria included completion of 3–5 days of microbiologically active IV therapy, being afebrile and haemodynamically stable for ≥48 hours, and absence of an uncontrolled source of infection. Pregnancy, endocarditis, and neurological infections were exclusion criteria. Randomization, stratified by urinary source of bacteraemia, was to continue IV (IV Group) or to switch to oral therapy (Oral Group). Agents and duration of therapy were determined by the treating physicians. The primary endpoint was treatment failure, defined as death, need for additional antimicrobial therapy, microbiological relapse, or infection-related re-admission within 90 days. Non-inferiority threshold was set at 10% in the 95% CI for the difference in the proportion with treatment failure between the Oral and IV Groups in the modified intention-to-treat population. The protocol was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04146922). Results: In the modified intention-to-treat population, treatment failure occurred in 21 of 82 (25.6%) in the IV Group, and 18 of 83 (21.7%) in the Oral Group (risk difference –3.7%, 95% CI –16.6% to 9.2%). The proportions of subjects with any adverse events (AE), serious AE, or AE leading to treatment discontinuation were comparable. Discussion: In patients with Enterobacterales bacteraemia, oral switch, after initial IV antimicrobial therapy, clinical stability, and source control, is non-inferior to continuing IV therapy.