Several types of infections of the central nervous system by melanized fungi can be distinguished: (a) single-organ infection of the cerebrum, (b) extension into the cerebrum from adjacent cavities, (c) fungal presence in the cerebrospinal fluid, or (d) meningitis. The fungal order Chaetothyriales (containing Exophiala-like black yeasts and relatives) is particularly rich in fungi causing cerebral infections. Cases by the main agents, Cladophialophora bantiana, Exophiala dermatitidis, and Ramichloridium mackenziei, published during the last 5 years are reviewed. Most of these infections prove to be fatal. Resection of the lesions in combination with antimycotic therapy may reduce mortality.