The clinical spectrum of xanthomatous lesions of the eyelids.


Baykal C. , Ekinci A. , Yazganoglu K. D. , Buyukbabani N.

International journal of dermatology, vol.56, no.10, pp.981-992, 2017 (Journal Indexed in SCI Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 56 Issue: 10
  • Publication Date: 2017
  • Doi Number: 10.1111/ijd.13637
  • Title of Journal : International journal of dermatology
  • Page Numbers: pp.981-992

Abstract

Yellowish papules, nodules, or plaques, namely "xanthomatous" lesions, may be seen on the eyelids in the course of various disorders. The prototype is "xanthelasma palpebrarum" (XP) that is localized only to the eyelids and may be associated with hyperlipidemia. On the other hand, different types of normolipemic disorders may also cause xanthomatous eyelid lesions. Among these, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, diffuse normolipemic xanthoma, and non-Langerhans cell histiocytoses (papular xanthoma, juvenile xanthogranuloma, xanthoma disseminatum, adult-onset xanthogranuloma, adult-onset asthma and periocular xanthogranuloma, necrobiotic xanthogranuloma, Erdheim-Chester disease, Rosai-Dorfman disease, and reticulohistiocytosis) can be listed. The eyelid findings of this heterogeneous group of disorders are challenging to differentiate from each other due to common clinical aspects that may even sometimes mimic XP. Nodularity, induration, ulceration, diffuse eyelid involvement, and extension from eyelids to the neighboring skin may represent the clinical features of xanthomatous lesions other than XP. It is necessary to obtain a thorough history and exclude XP and then perform detailed dermatological and systemic examination, biopsy for histopathologic confirmation, and appropriate specific imaging screens. As some of the conditions may be associated with other systemic disorders, especially malignancies, the differentiation of xanthomatous eyelid lesions has a critical importance, and clinical signs can be guiding.