Objective To investigate the current situation of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (CAP) training in European countries. In addition, current agenda of different organizations in order to harmonize the training across Europe are reported. Method In order to collect data for this descriptive documentation on CAP training in European countries, we have communicated with "European Union of Medical Specialists Section on Child and Adolescent Psychiatry" (UEMS-CAP) and "The European Federation of Psychiatric Trainees" (EFPT) representatives of each country via e-mail. In addition, we used UEMS and EFPT annual forum minutes and web sites of national CAP societies to validate the data. Result The structure of CAP training has many differences between 34 European countries. For instance, in 32.4% of the countries, CAP is not a specialty in its own right but is mostly linked to general psychiatry. After medical school, the minimum training duration to become a CAP specialist ranges between 12 and 96 (mean: 59.71 +/- 17.1) months. While, a trainee should pass an examination to begin CAP training in 37.9% of the countries, 64.7% have an examination to graduate and both is the case in 29.7% of the countries. Conclusion By the year 2006, European countries still have large differences in the structure of CAP training. It is assumed that the same holds true for content of training, which was not the focus of this documentation. UEMS-CAP, ESCAP (European Society of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry) and EFPT are the major bodies that have to manage the harmonization of CAP training across Europe. The obligatory conditions of a fruitful training, the high quality of teachers and teaching facilities, essential ingredients of an efficient training programme, are prone to be determined by evidence-based evaluations in the process of harmonization.