Evaluation of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) outflows during the destruction of HBCD wastes in a hazardous waste incinerator


Canli O., Güzel B., Öktem Olgun E., Çetintürk K., Uludağ İ., Görhan B., ...More

Science of the Total Environment, vol.927, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 927
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2024.172317
  • Journal Name: Science of the Total Environment
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Analytical Abstracts, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, Environment Index, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Geobase, Greenfile, Metadex, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Active carbon, Ash, Flue gas, HBCD waste, PBDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs
  • Istanbul University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

This paper presents an evaluation of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) outflows during the destruction of HBCD waste stockpiles in IZAYDAS Hazardous Waste Incinerator (HWI) in Kocaeli, Türkiye. HBCD wastes containing 100 % pure HBCD were in 25 kg packages with 63 % Br content were co-incinerated in a 3-day test burn with average feed rate of 26 kg/h. HBCD, PBDD/Fs and PCDD/Fs were measured in the outlet streams to quantify the amount of unintended POPs releases associated with the processing of HBCD waste and to observe the POP removal performance of air pollution control equipment (APCE) of the incinerator. Total mass outflow rate of HBCDs is calculated as 2.6 g/day, corresponding to destruction efficiency of 99.9996 %. Total toxicity of the brominated dioxins was measured as 0.00044 ng TEQ/Nm3 on average, while highly brominated congeners are dominant. PCDD/F concentrations in the outflow streams during HBCD test burns are produced similar congener distributions with those given in the previous studies, with the dominance of 7,8-chlorinated congeners. Mass flows in the outlet streams indicated that the efficiency of ESP and wet scrubbers for the removal of PCDD/Fs and HBCDs. Flue gas concentrations of PCDD/Fs, HBCDs and PBDD/Fs obtained in HBCD burn test indicated that burning HBCD wastes cause no significant emissions as operational parameters and total halogen content in the menu are kept within the incinerator limits.