Introduction: Brescia-Cimino radiocephalic arteriovenous fistula (AVF) remains the first choice vascular access procedure for patients in need of long-term hemodialysis. Brachiocephalic fistulas are considered as a secondary option in almost all published guidelines. Recently in many reports, elbow and upper arm fistulas are recommended to be used as primary fistulas especially in elderly, diabetic, hypertensive patients. Elbow fistulas (brachiocephalic and brachiobasilic) should only rarely be constructed as primary fistulas. Forearm AVFs should be tried first to give a chance to the patient, because it is not the maturation-patency rates per se but also lowering the complication rates and saving the vessels for future use are equally important.