Background. - Neuropsychological testing reveals a pattern of impairment among patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) which implicates the orbitofrontal region. Studies of neuropsychological function in OCD differ regarding performance deficits on classical tests of frontal executive function. In some studies, OCD patients did not demonstrate impaired performance on tests of executive function. However, other researchers have documented performance deficits among OCD patients on measures of executive function. Patients with OCD also exhibit performance deficits on tests of visual/spatial memory and verbal memory. Again, in some studies, OCD patients did not demonstrate impaired performance on tests of memory function. How can we account for the conflicting findings? One possibility is that performance deficits on tests of cognitive function are associated with comorbid conditions. In prior work, we observed that OCD patients who did poorly on executive function tasks obtained high scores on a measure of schizotypal personality. A second possibility is that executive function deficits among patients with OCD are associated with comorbid depressive symptoms.