GENE, vol.704, pp.59-67, 2019 (SCI-Expanded)
Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA) is a lysosomal storage disease caused by biallelic mutations in GALNS gene and characterized by progressive skeletal deformities with short stature. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotype, longitudinal height measurement and clinical features of MPS IVA patients. Thirty-two patients from 22 families were enrolled. The ages of patients at diagnosis ranged from two months to 18 years of age, and followed up for three to twenty years. They were classified as severe and attenuated form (intermediate and mild) according to their height measurements. The mean height standard deviation scores (SDS) for Turkish standards at 0-3, 5 and 10 years of ages were found to be -1.1, -4.2 and -7.3 respectively in patients with severe phenotype, while they were +0.4, -1.5 and -3 for intermediate phenotype. Patients with severe form reached a mean final height of -8.5 SDS, and mild phenotype -3.6 SDS. The most common initial and current symptoms in the patients with the severe phenotype were pectus carinatus and/or kyphosis deformities which occurred between 5 months and 3 years of age, and genu valgum deformity which developed after 3 years of age. However, kyphoscoliosis was the most common initial and current findings in the attenuated phenotype. Although, initial symptoms appeared in early childhood in the intermediate phenotype, similar to the severe phenotype, the clinical findings progressed slowly and genu valgum deformity did not develop. In patients with mild phenotype, the onset of symptoms was after 5 years of age. In conclusion, this study provides significant insights into the initial and follow-up clinical features and height values that contribute to the differential diagnosis of the severe and intermediate phenotypes in early childhood. Eleven mutations in GALNS gene in which one of them is novel (c.416G > A) were associated with the severe phenotype and three mutations (c.1038C > A, c.850T > G, c.752G > A) lead to the attenuated phenotype.