The combined effects of temperature and compression on the microstructure of solid-wood panels produced by Aspen (Populus tremula) wood were evaluated. Thermal compression was applied on aspen wood to increase the density for improving its physical and mechanical properties. The solid wood panels with dimensions of 100 mm by 500 mm by 25 mm were hot-pressed by using a laboratory hot press at a temperature of either 150 degrees C or 170 degrees C and pressure of either 1MPa or 2 MPa, respectively, for 45 min. Changes in the microstructure were detected by using a light microscope. The microscopic investigations revealed that the wood exhibited much defects in the process conditions of 170 degrees C / 2 MPa, and the distribution of defects were not uniform in the growth rings of the wood specimens in the two treatment groups. All defects in cell structure were quite distinct in the beginning and the last parts of the growth rings and the largest damages occurred in the fibers and vessels for the two process conditions. The results indicate that growth ring structure, vessel porosity, and cell wall thickness have a strong effect on wood behavior in various process conditions.