CHEMOSPHERE, vol.253, 2020 (SCI-Expanded)
In the present work, advanced treatment of carwash wastewater with an integrated electrocoagulation-nanofiltration (EC-NF) process to reuse the treated wastewater as rinsing water was investigated. The wastewater was pretreated by EC process under various operating parameters such as temperature (25 degrees C, 35 degrees C, 45 degrees C), stirring speed (150 rpm, 250 rpm, 350 rpm), and electrode connection mode (MP-P, MP-S, BP-S) using Fe electrode. The best results were achieved at 25 degrees C, 250 rpm and MP-P connection mode for EC, considering both pollutant removals and energy consumptions. EC sludge was characterized scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive index (ESEM-EDX) analysis. The pretreated carwash wastewater using EC process was further treated by NF process using NF 270 and Desal 5DL membranes. Desal 5 DL membrane provided the highest treatment performance for chloride (92%), conductivity (80%) and total hardness (90%) parameters for EC-NF process. Resistance in series model was used for a deeper discussion of the reasons for flux decline. In addition, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and contact angle measurements were conducted for membrane fouling characterization. The foulants mainly accumulated on the membrane surface forming a cake layer and lower extent of membrane fouling was occurred for both membranes. As a result, this study showed that the water quality for reuse in carwashing process could be achieved with an integrated EC-NF process. (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.