Diagnostic overlap of depressive, anxiety, stress and somatoform disorders in primary care


Bener A. , AL-KAZAZ M., FTOUNI D., AL-HARTHY M., DAFEEAH E. E.

ASIA-PACIFIC PSYCHIATRY, cilt.5, 2013 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier identifier

Özet

Introduction The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of somatization, anxiety, depression and stress in a primary care population, explore their association to psychosocial stressors and determine the diagnostic overlap of these four mental disorders. Methods This is a prospective cross-sectional study. A representative sample of 2,150 patients was approached, of whom 1,762 patients agreed to participate and responded to the questionnaire (81.9%). Anxiety was assessed with the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7). Depression was assessed with the depression module Patients Health Questionnaire-8. Somatization was measured with the somatic symptom module PHQ-15. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) instrument was used to identify the stress cases. Results Of the study sample, 23.8% of the total cases were identified as probable cases. The prevalence of somatization, depression, anxiety and stress was 11.7%, 11.3%, 8.3% and 18.6%, respectively. The specific gender prevalence of these four psychological disorders was very similar in men and women: depression (11.3% versus 11.3%), anxiety (7.7% versus 8.9%), somatization (12.5% versus 10.7%) and stress disorders (19.3% versus 17.8%). A significant difference was observed in nationality and marital status for depression and anxiety (P<0.05). The age-specific prevalence rate showed a higher prevalence in the age group 4554 years: depression (13.3%), anxiety (9.5%), somatization (12.8%) and stress (20.4%). Unable to control worries (69.2%) was the worst symptom for anxiety disorders, while the majority of the depressed patients wanted to hurt themselves (71.9%). Stomach pain (46.1%) was the most common symptom in somatic patients. Most of the patients experiencing stress could not cope with their daily duties (65.9%). There was a high comorbidity rate of depression, anxiety, somatization and stress observed in the studied population (9.3%). Conclusion The prevalence of somatization and depression was similar, but the prevalence of stress was higher in inpatient patients. Somatization, depression, anxiety and stress disorders co-occurred at higher rate in the study sample.