Regulatory T cells were investigated in early-onset (EO) and late-onset (LO) myasthenia gravis patients with anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody (AChR-MG). Alterations in PD-1 and PD-L1 on CD4(+)CD25(++) (Treg) and responder T cells (Tresp, CD4(+)CD25(-)) were observed in LOMG patients. GITR was decreased on CD4(+)CD25(++) of all patients. Decrease of FOXP3 was associated with lower phosphorylation of STAT5.1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VitD3) increased suppression in co-culture with a stronger effect in patients by acting possibly both on cell groups. Changes in surface molecules and intracellular pathways contribute to the defects of Treg in non-thymomatous AChR-MG and VitD3 can have modulatory effects. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.