Background and Aim: Although the functional consequences of MDR-1 polymorphisms have been the subject of numerous studies, to the best to our knowledge, associations with clinical side effects of anticancer drugs have yet to be assessed. Our aim was to clarify any role of the C3435T polymorphism of the MDR1 gene in oral mucositis and its relation with elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Materials and Methods: The distribution of the MDR-1 C3435T polymorphism in 47 patients with ALL was determined by RFLP and compared with that of 68 healthy controls. Results: There were no association in distribution of genotypes of MDR-1 C3435T polymorphism and the risk of ALL. Oral mucositis were detected in 78.7% (n=37) of the patients and significantly related to the MDR-1 CT genotype (p=0.042), as confirmed by logistic regression analysis. Conclusion: Our preliminary data suggest that children carrying the CT genotype are more prone to develop oral mucositis, which might mean that the heterozygous genotype leads to accumulation of more reactive oxygen species. Since a limited number of patients was investigated, further studies are needed to confirm these findings.