Radiation enteritis occurs during the radiotherapy of many intraabdominal malignancies. Radiation induces cellular injury directly and through the generation of free radicals. In the present study we aimed to investigate the effect of octreotide (OCT) pretreatment in irradiation-induced enteritis. For this aim, rats were injected with 50 mu g/kg OCT 4 days before irradiation and continued for 3 more days, until sacrifice. Then intestinal and pancreatic myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities and intestinal malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of the rats were measured. Irradiation significantly increased intestinal and pancreatic MPO activities and MDA levels of intestinal tissues in comparison to those of the sham group. OCT treatment improved this elevation. The histopathologic evaluation of the mucosal structure was also preserved in the OCT-treated group. Inflammation of pancreatic tissue was also confirmed with histopathological examinations. In the irradiation group, NF kappa-B overexpression was detected. OCT treatment decreased the end organ damage and inflammation of the small intestine. In conclusion, OCT appears to have beneficial effects on intestinal and pancreatic damage in abdominal irradiation through the inflammatory process.