The resistance of Scots pine wood vacuum-treated with nano-particles of ZnO, B2O3, CuO, TiO2, CeO2, and SnO2 against decay, mold fungi and subterranean termites was evaluated. Weathering and water absorption properties were also studied. Nano-ZnO only was resistant against leaching, while the other compounds leached out from wood specimens at more than 60% release rates. Mold growth in wood specimens was significantly inhibited by treatment with nano-ZnO and nano-B2O3. In Petri dishes, all mold fungi were also inhibited by nano-ZnO and nano-B2O3; however, nano-SnO2 inhibited Trichoderma harzianum growth only. Weight loss from fungal attack by the brown-rot fungus was significantly inhibited by all nano-compounds tested, except for leached specimens of nano-B2O3 treatments. Considerably higher weight losses were obtained in decay resistance tests by the white rot fungus; only nano-CuO and nano-SnO2 were effective against this fungus. Nano-CuO and nano B2O3 treatments produced favorable termite resistance in both weathered and unweathered specimens, while nano-ZnO and nano-CeO2 resulted in decreased weight loss in specimens exposed to termites. Nano-ZnO was slightly effective in decreasing water absorption. Exposing untreated wood specimens to artificial weathering resulted in significant changes in the chemical structure as determined by FT-IR analysis; however, weathering effect was somewhat decreased by the incorporation of the nano-compounds. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.