Predictive factors that could possibly affect the cure and complication rates of tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) were investigated. Seventy-five consecutive patients with urodynamically proven SUI and who had undergone a TVT operation were evaluated according to a follow-up protocol. Median age was 51.2 (33-69). Thirteen (17%) of the patients had had previous anti-incontinence surgery. Sixteen (21%) patients had complained of pure stress and 59 (79%) of mixed incontinence. Valsalva leak point pressure (VLPP) values had been found to be below 60 cmH(2)O in 36 (48%) and over 60 cmH(2)O in 39 (52%) patients, while detrusor overactivity (DO) had been detected in six (8%) patients during urodynamic evaluation. Local, general, and epidural anesthesia had been performed in 43 (57%), 29 (39%), and three (4%) patients, respectively. Univariate analyses were done using Fisher's exact and Chi-square tests. Multivariate analyses were done using logistic regression test to determine predictive factors affecting cure and complication rates. Mean surgical and hospitalization times were 34.7 min (20-70) and 1.2 days (1-5), respectively. Mean follow-up was 21.6 months (6-38). Cure and improvement rates were 89 and 8%, respectively. Thirty-one complications were observed in 27 (36%) patients. Intraoperative bladder perforation and bleeding occurred in three (4%) and two (3%) patients, respectively. Sixty-six (88%) patients voided spontaneously after TVT while nine (12%) performed clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) for a period of time. Seven of nine patients regained the spontaneous voiding ability within 1 month. The tape was cut in two of these retentive patients and one with severe storage lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) either unilaterally or bilaterally. On univariate (Fisher's exact test, p =0.018), and multivariate (Logistic regression, p =0.013) analyses, patient age was the only statistically significant parameter affecting the cure rate, which was significantly lower particularly over 55 years of age. No significant factor predicting the complications was detected. TVT is an effective and safe surgical procedure in the treatment of SUI. In this study age was the only significant predictive factor affecting the cure rate while no significant factor predicting the complications was detected. Cure rate was significantly lower in patients over 55 years of age.