In this study, two cases of biopsy-proven pancreatic tuberculosis are reported. The patients presented with fever, anorexia, fatigue, abdominal pain and weight loss. A differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin was conducted. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a cystic mass image in the pancreatic head in one patient, and a hypodense lesion in the pancreatic head in the other. The first patient was diagnosed by a wedge biopsy specimen obtained in the exploratory laparotomy. The other patient was diagnosed by percutaneous fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Both patients were successfully treated with quadruple antituberculous therapy for 12 months. We concluded that especially in young patients who present with a mass in the pancreas, pancreatic tuberculosis should be considered among the differential diagnoses, particularly in developing countries and immunosuppressed individuals. (C) 2001 Blackwell Science Asia Pty Ltd.