The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic contribution of gray-scale ultrasonography, color Doppler, superb microvascular imaging and shear wave elastography in thyroid dyshormonogenesis (TD). From October 2017 to February 2018, the prospective study included 31 patients (13.6 y; 11-14 y) diagnosed with TD based on thyroid scintigraphy and perchlorate discharge tests and 40 healthy pediatric volunteers (12.8 y; 10-16 y). Median resistive indices (RIs), peak systolic and end-diastolic velocities, vascularity indices (VIs) via superb microvascular imaging and shear wave elastography parameters were evaluated. Median VI values were significantly higher and median RI values were significantly lower in the study group than the control group. No significant difference was found between shear wave elastography parameters of the TD and control group. VI was significantly correlated with median total thyroid gland volumes (p = 0.002, r = 0.28), medication dosage (p = 0.03, r = 0.48) and 2-h radioactive iodine uptake values (p = 0.008, r = 0.57). VI is a clinically significant and novel parameter useful for diagnosing TD. (E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org) (C) 2019 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. All rights reserved.