An observational European study on clinical outcomes associated with current management strategies for non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (ENERGIB-Turkey)

Mungan Z.

TURKISH JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY, vol.23, no.5, pp.463-477, 2012 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 23 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2012
  • Doi Number: 10.4318/tjg.2012.0402
  • Page Numbers: pp.463-477


Background/aims: This observational, retrospective cohort study assessed outcomes of the current management strategies for non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding in several European countries (Belgium, Greece, Italy, Norway, Portugal, Spain, and Turkey) (NCT00797641; ENERGIB). Materials and Methods: Turkey contributed 23 sites to this study. Adult patients (>= 18 years old) consecutively admitted to hospital and who underwent endoscopy for overt non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (hematenzesis, melena or hematochezia, with other clinical/laboratory evidence of acute upper GI blood loss) were included in the study. Data were collected from patient medical records regarding bleeding continuation, re-bleeding, pharmacological treatment, surgery, and mortality during a 30-day follow-up period. Results: A total of 423 patients (67.4% men; mean age: 57.8 +/- 18.9 years) were enrolled in the Turkish study centers, of whom 96.2% were admitted to hospital with acute non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. At admission, the most common symptom was melena (76.1%); 28.6% of patients were taking aspirin, 19.9% were on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and 7.3% were on proton pump inhibitors. The most common diagnoses were duodenal (45.2%) and gastric (27.7%) ulcers and gastritis/gastric erosions (26.2%). Patients were most often managed in general medical wards (45.4%). A gastrointestinal team was in charge of treatment in 64.8% of cases. Therapeutic procedures were performed in 32.4% of patients during endoscopy. After the endoscopy, most patients (94.6%) received proton pump inhibitors. Mean (SD) hospital stay was 5.36 +/- 4.91 days. The cumulative proportions of continued bleeding/re-bleeding, complications and mortality within 30 days of the non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding episode were 9.0%, 5.7% and 2.8%, respectively. In the Turkish sub-group of patients, the significant risk factors for bleeding continuation or re-bleeding were age >65 years, presentation with hematemesis or shock I syncope, and the diagnosis of duodenal ulcer. The risk of clinical complications after non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding was higher in female patients older than 65 years, in patients with comorbidities, and in patients presenting with shock/syncope, and also according to time to endoscopy. The use of aspirin, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or warfarin at baseline was negatively associated with the development of bleeding or clinical complications. The risk of death within 30 days after non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding was significantly higher in patients older than 65 years and in those receiving transfusions other than intravenous fluid or red blood cells within 12 hours of presentation. Conclusions: According to the survey results, non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding in Turkey varies from that in other European countries in a number of aspects. These differences could be associated with a younger population and Helicobacter pylori incidence. Despite the diminishing need for surgical intervention and mortality rates for non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding, as is the case in other European countries, non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding remains a serious problem.