Osteoporosis is a common and silent disease characterized by low bone mass, microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue and increased risk of fracture. However, it can be prevented, diagnosed and treated before fractures occur. Assessment of bone mineral density plays an important role in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Various imaging-based techniques, such as dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, quantitative computed tomography, quantitative ultrasound, digital X-ray radiogrammetry and radiographic absorptiometry are available for bone mineral density measurement. In this review, the radiological techniques used in assessing bone mineral density were presented on the basis of the related literature.